Stadterweiterungen in technisher, baupolizeilicher und wirtschaftlicher Beziehung (Town Extension in their Technical, Surveying and Economic Relationship), R Baumeister, 1876.
Proposed dimensions based on vehicle volume for suburban streets. This is the beginning of the street design profession.
Athens Charter, LeCorbusier, Grossman, 1933.
Corbu’s analysis of the ails of the city, and how to fix it, basically using the car. The analysis is spot on, and still applies for much of the world’s cities. The solutions were a product of the times (read: autocentric) and have largely failed.
Image Of The City, Kevin Lynch, MIT Press, Cambridge, 1960.
Sets out a series of descriptors which can be used to articulate the form and content of an urban space.
Death and Life of Great American Cities, Jane Jacobs, Random House, 1961.
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, T Kuhn, University of Chicago Press, 1962.
Explains how once a revolution in science (chemistry, for example) is attained, the world quickly realigns to the new understanding. Give those of us in transportation hope.
Life Between Buildings: Using Public Space, J Gehl, Danish Architectural Press, 1971.
Classic discussion of pedestrian-friendly urban design.
Defensible Space, O Newman, MacMillan, New York, 1973.
Sets up a four phase paradigm: public, semi-public, semi-private, and private which can be used to describe many urban interfaces.
Pedestrian Revolution: Streets without Cars, S Breines & W Dean, Random House, New York, 1974.
Early text on the advantages of streets designed for walking and the disadvantages of car centered design.
Urban Space for Pedestrians , B Pushkarev & J Zupan, MIT Press, Cambridge, 1975.
Comprehensive study of pedestrian movements in the city.
A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction, C Alexander, S Ishikawa, M Silverstein, M Jacobson, I Fiksdahl-King and S Angel, Oxford University Press, 1977.
Everything you need to know about neighborhood design.
Social Life of Small Urban Spaces, W H Whyte, World Wildlife Fund, 1980.
Classic study of how people use outdoor spaces.
Livable Streets, D Appleyard, UC Press, Berkeley, 1981.
Classic research onto the effects of traffic on neighborhoods.
Immature Arts of City Design, K Lynch, Places, Volume 1, Number 3, 1984.
Cities and People, M Girouard, Yale University Press, 1985.
Cities and the Wealth of Nations, Jane Jacobs, 1985.
Pedestrian: Planning & Design, J Fruin, Elevator World, 1987.
Innovative research which formed the basis for modern concepts of measuring pedestrian use and usage.
Experience Of Place, T Hiss, Knopf, 1990.
Almost poetic description of the public places that we all inhabit, and should perhaps retain.
The Pedestrian and City Traffic, C Hass-Klau, Belhaven Press, 1990.
From goodreads: The book presents an insightful honest analysis of where transport planners have failed since the mid-nineteenth century to the present and how traffic calming can be applied in major British, American and German cities. It discusses the segregation of motor vehicles from pedestrians and the development of public transport as a cheap, efficient and comfortable alternative to the automobile.
The City Shaped: Urban Patterns and Meaning Through History, S Kostof, Bulfinch Press, 1991.
Bausteine 12: Verkehrsberuhigung und Strassenraumgestaltung (Traffic Calming and Streetscape Design), Ministry of City Development and Transportation NRW, www.ils.nrw.de, 1992.
Fully illustrated handbook with research, case studies and ideas on reallocating the right-of-way in favor of non-motorized traffic.
Bausteine 18: Radverkehr an Hauptverkehrsstrassen (Bicycle Traffic on Main Roads), Ministry of City Development and Transportation NRW, www.ils.nrw.de, 1994.
Fully illustrated handbook with research, case studies and ideas on progressive bicycle facilities on main roads.
Down the Asphalt Path: The Automobile and the American City, C McShane, Columbia University Press, 1994.
Great Streets, A Jacobs, MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995.
Research comparing hundreds of streets around the world, at scale, to determine the elements which make them worthy of constant praise.
ASVV: Recommendations for Traffic Provisions in Built-up Areas, Centre for Research and Contract Standardization in Civil and Traffic Engineering, www.crow.nl, 1996.
Dutch industry standard for roadway design.
Sign Up for the Bike: Design manual for a cycle-friendly infrastructure, Centre for Research and Contract Standardization in Civil and Traffic Engineering, www.crow.nl, 1996.
From introduction: …collates existing knowledge, introduces a number of new approaches and suggests optimum solutions as seen from the cyclist's viewpoint. It is assumed that there is already a certain amount of political support for promoting the use of bicycles. This book then is primarily intended for those people, for example who work for local authorities, who are closely involved in the design of cycling-facilities and who must add content to a politically formulated policy...
Asphalt Nation: How The Automobile Took Over America And How We Can Take It Back, J H Kay, Crown Publishing, New York, 1997.
Often didactic discussion of how the United States has been turned over the automobile interests.
City After the Automobile: An Architect's Vision, M Safdie, Westview Press, 1997.
Begs the question of why other architects have not taken up the mantle.
Greening Of Urban Transport: Planning for Walking and Cycling in Western Cities, R Tolley, ed., Wiley, 1997.
From cabdirect: The book examines policies and strategies for increasing walking/cycling mode share and reviews progress towards that in a variety of geographical circumstances and policy environments. The first section focuses on the principles of planning for the green modes. Specific discussions throughout relate to Western European cities. The second section focuses on strategies for the encouragement of the green modes. The third section assembles experience and results of green mode encouragement, and thus functions as a review of the state of the art in the late 1980s. The book concludes with policy recommendations.
Traveling Speed and the Risk of Crash Involvement, C N Kloeden. et al, The University of Adelaide, 1997.
From Abstract: The relationship between free travelling speed and the risk of involvement in a casualty crash in a 60 km/h speed limit zone was quantified using a case control study design. It was found that the risk of involvement in a casualty crash doubled with each 5 km/h increase in free travelling speed above 60 km/h. Hypothetical speed reductions applied to the case vehicles indicated large potential safety benefits from even small reductions in travelling speed, particularly on arterial roads.
Bausteine 21: Hauptverkehrsstrassen fuer den Umweltverbund (Main Roads for the Environment), Ministry of City Development and Transportation NRW, www.ils.nrw.de, 1998.
Fully illustrated handbook with research, case studies and ideas on design and operation of urban thoroughfares.
Design and Safety of Pedestrian Facilities, ITE, www.ite.org, 1998.
From summary and conclusions: While traffic engineers have a responsibility to provide for the safe and efficient flow of all types of road users, traffic-control measures are too often designed with the sole interests of motorists in mind, and pedestrians are left to ‘fend for themselves’ on streets with inadequate crossing times, confusing traffic-control devices, excessive delays, and construction zones with little or no provisions for those who walk...
Main Street: When a Highway Runs Through It, Oregon DOT, 1999.
Handbook of ideas to reintegrate highways into the urban streetscape as they become main streets.
Safety in Geometric Design Standards, E Hauer, self-published, 1999.
From introduction: Designers of roads believe that roads built to standards are safe. Lawyers and judges assume that roads designed to standards are appropriately safe. Beliefs, no matter how passionately held, and assumptions, no matter how repeatedly applied, are fallible guides to truth. The truth is that roads designed to standards are not safe, not unsafe, nor are they appropriately safe; roads designed to standards have an unpremeditated level of safety.
Street Design Guidelines for Healthy Neighborhoods, D Burden, et al, Center for Livable Communities, www.lgc.org, 1999.
From introduction: Traditional streets are an important component of healthy neighborhoods and livable communities. Pedestrians in most cities say they want well-designed neighborhood alleys, lanes and streets that keep motorist speeds between 10 and 25 mph, and provide on-street parking, sidewalks, shade, benches, street lamps, and other community amenities.
Street reclaiming: Creating Livable Streets and Vibrant Communities, D Engwicht, New Society Publishers, 1999.
Early tactical urbanism.
Bicycles: an integral part of urban transport system in South Asian cities, G Tiwari, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Delhi, 2000.
presents details from a case study of a corridor in Delhi to illustrate how existing arterial roads can be replanned to provide for safer and more convenient bicycling and at the same time improve efficiency of bus transport system.
Collection of Cycle Concepts (English), S Jensen, et.al, Road Directorate, www.vd.dk, 2000.
From abstract: Promotion of more and safer bicycle traffic produces healthier road users and helps to create better towns. Collection of Cycle Concepts presents some ideas on how to increase the use of bicycles and how to prevent bicycle accidents.
Home Zones: Reconciling People, Places and Transport, B Hamilton-Baillie, 2000.
Study tour of Home Zones (woonerven) in Sweden, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands.
Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access, Part 2, B McMillen, ed., FHWA, http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/sidewalk2/, 2001.
Beautiful Roads: A Handbook on Road Architecture (English), Road Directorate, www.vd.dk, 2002.
From introduction: Architecture is an art form that is bound up with utilitarian, technical, and economic considerations and with the "sense of place" and physical conditions of a site. Architecture is thus often described as a balancing and coordination of aesthetic, functional, and technological considerations.
Pedestrian Facilities Users Guide: Providing Safety and Mobility, C Zegeer, et.al., FHWA-RD-01-102 , 2002.
From abstract: This guide is intended to provide information on how to identify safety and mobility needs for pedestrians with the roadway right-of-way. Useful for engineers, planners, safety professionals and decision-makers, the guide covers such topics as: the Walking Environment including sidewalks, curb ramps, crosswalks, roadway lighting and pedestrian over and under passes; Roadway Design including bicycle lanes, roadway narrowing, reducing the number of lanes, one-way/two-way streets, right-turn slip lanes and raised medians; Intersections with roundabouts, T-intersections and median barriers; and Traffic Calming designs.
Boulevard Book: History, Evolution, Design of Multiway Boulevards, A Jacobs, et al, MIT Press Cambridge, 2003.
A celebration of the multiway boulevard and an argument for its revival, with design guidelines and historic examples.
Neighborhood Street Design Guidelines, ITE, www.ite.org, 2003.
From website: provides guidance in the overall layout and design of transportation elements for new neighborhood developments, where neighborhoods can comprise both residential and mixed residential/commercial subdivision development. The report presents design criteria that will encourage appropriate behavior on the part of motorists, pedestrians and bicyclists, as well as providing for a reasonably safe and accessible street network.
New City Spaces, J Gehl & L Gemzoe, Danish Architectural Press, 2003.
Public Places Urban Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban Design, M Carmona, T Heath, T Oc & S Tiesdell, Architectural Press, 2003.
Streets and the Shaping of Towns and Cities, M Southworth & E Ben-Joseph, Island Press, 2003.
ARTISTS: Arterial Streets for People, A Svensson, ed, European Union, Brussels., 2004.
From introduction: presents an integrated, people-oriented approach to the design and management of arterial streets.
Dark Age Ahead, Jane Jacobs, 2004.
Excellent critique of the specialization of the professions.
Public Spaces, Public Life, J Gehl, L Gemzøe, Danish Architectural Press, 2004.
Review of Pedestrian Safety Research in the United States and Abroad, B Campbell, et al, FHWA-RD-03-042, 2004.
From abstract: an overview of research studies on pedestrian safety in the United States; some foreign research also is included. Readers will find details of pedestrian crash characteristics, measures of pedestrian exposure and hazard, and specific roadway features and their effects on pedestrian safety. Such features include crosswalks and alternative crossing treatments, signalization, signing, pedestrian refuge islands, provisions for pedestrians with disabilities, bus stop location, school crossing measures, reflectorization and conspicuity, grade separated crossings, traffic-calming measures, and sidewalks and paths. Pedestrian educational and enforcement programs also are discussed.
Streets and Patterns: The Structure of Urban Geometry, S Marshall, Routledge, New York, 2004.
From Amazon: a new framework for the design and planning of urban layouts, integrating transport issues such as road hierarchy, arterial streets and multi-modal networks with urban design and planning issues such as street type, grid type, mixed-use blocks and urban design coding.
World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention, M Peden, et al, World Health Organization, www.who.int, 2004
From Summary: Road traffic injuries are a growing public health issue, disproportionately affecting vulnerable groups of road users, including the poor. But road traffic crashes and injuries are preventable. Road traffic injury prevention must be incorporated into a broad range of activities, such as the development and management of road infrastructure, mobility planning, the provision of health and hospital services, child welfare services, and urban and environmental planning. The health sector is an important partner in this process. Its roles are to strengthen the evidence base, provide appropriate pre-hospital and hospital care and rehabilitation, conduct advocacy, and contribute to the implementation and evaluation of interventions.
Recombinant Urbanism: conceptual modeling in architecture, urban design, and city theory, D G Shane, Wiley, 2005.
from http://archidose.org/wp/2006/12/11/recombinant-urbanism/- This history and manifesto of urban-modeling techniques is all about threes. It starts with the three stage sets of Sebastian Serlio (the Noble, the Comic, and the Satyric) from his Mannerist treatise The Five Books of Architecture. It continues with Kevin Lynch's three "normative" models (the City of Faith, the City as a Machine, and the Organic City), in many ways the basis for Shane's book. Variations on Lynch's three are also found in Cedric Price's "The City as an Egg" (boiled, fried, scrambled) and the Young Planners' three urban patterns (Archi Città, Cine Città, and Tele Città). Each of these groupings of three basically tell the same story, the evolutionary stages of urban form: the compact pre-industrial city with a highly defined center, the sprawling industrial city with its logic of production and consumption, and contemporary cities characterized by multiple centers acting as attractors (of people and goods).
Urban Transport Crisis in India, Pucher, J Pucher, et al, Transport Policy, 2005.
From Abstract: This article summarizes key trends in India’s transport system and travel behavior, analyzes the extent and causes of the most severe problems, and recommends nine policy improvements that would help mitigate India’s urban transport crisis.
Golden Age for Cities? How we design cities is how we understand them, B Hillier, Urban Design, Issue 100, 2006.
From article: For decades, under the influence of transport engineering and our own architectural conceptions, we have thought of the city as a system of urban places linked by movement channels. By implication this has separated movement from place. It is now clear that movement is intrinsic to place, and the life of places is largely a function of how it is embedded in the larger scale spatial pattern of the city and movement potential it creates.
London Cycling Design Standards, Transport for London, London, 2006.
From http://www.tmsconsultancy.co.uk: This document sets out the principals, guidance and standards for designing to reduce barriers to cycling, in order to support road safety targets and increased levels of cycling in London. It is aimed not just at designers of cycle route schemes, but at all designers of infrastructure that cyclists will use or that will affect cyclists.
The Art of Cycling: A Guide to Bicycling in the 21st-Century America, R Hurst, Falcon Guide, 2007.
Link & Place : A Guide to Street Planning and Design, P Jones, N Boujenko & S Marshall, 2007.
Sets the standard for street typologies.
Liveable Neighbourhoods, Western Australian Planning Commission, Department for Planning and Infrastructure, 2007.
Manual for Streets, A Bradbury, et al, Thomas Teleford Publishing, London, 2007.
Concrete Dragon, Thomas Campanella, Princeton Architectural Press, 2008.
Excellent history and understanding of Chinese cities.
Speed Management: A Road Safety Manual for Decision-Makers and Practitioners, E Howard, et al, Global Road Safety Partnership, 2008.
From the executive summary: The management of speed remains one of the biggest challenges facing road safety practitioners around the world and calls for a concerted, long-term, multidisciplinary response. This manual advocates a strong and strategic approach to creating a safe road system, with speed management at its heart. Reducing motor vehicle speeds in areas where the road user mix includes a high volume of vulnerable road users such as pedestrians and cyclists is especially important. The manual consists of a series of ‘how to’modules.
Toward a new paradigm: Examples and Lessons from Nottingham, Boston and Seoul, unpublished, 2008.
Looks at three cities which have made strides towards new paradigms in terms of the city, departing from the Le Corbusier car-centric attitude to city planning.
Traffic Safety and City Structure: Lessons for the Future, D Mohan, Salud Publica Mex 2008, vol 50, suppl 1, 2008.
Road traffic fatality data for 56 cities around the world and for cities with a population of greater than 100,000 in the USA... There are wide variations in fatality rates across income levels and within similar incomes levels. The risk varies by a factor of about 20 between the best and the worst cities. These patterns appear to indicate that it is not enough to have the safest vehicle and road technology to ensure low road traffic fatality rates. City structure, modal share split, and exposure of motorists and pedestrians may have a significant role in determining fatality rates, in addition to enforcement, vehicle crashworthiness and road design.
Designing Roads that Guide Drivers to Choose Safer Speeds, J Ivan, N Garrick & G Hanson, Connecticut Cooperative Highway Research Program, Report JHR 09-321, 2009.
Footfalls: Obstacle Course to Livable Cities, A Roychowdhury, Centre for Science and Environment, Delhi, 2009.
A study on walkability in India, where walking has a significant mode share.
Making Transportation Sustainable: Insights from Germany, J Pucher, et al, Brookings Institution, 2009.
From Executive Summary: Increasing transportation sustainability in the United States requires policies that foster changes in travel behavior. Germany’s case may provide a helpful example. Although car use has grown in both countries, Germany has been far more successful than the United States in creating a more balanced transportation system.
Paved with Good Intentions: Fiscal Politics, Freeways, and the 20th Century American City, J Brown, E Morris and B Taylor, Access, No. 3, 2009.
Follows the money to explain how we got the cities we have.
Prosperity Without Growth, T Jackson, 2009.
Removing Roads and Traffic Lights Speeds Urban Travel, L Baker, Scientific American, 2009.
An article that explores the paradox that removing network capacity can actually decrease travel time.
Road Safety in India: Challenges and Opportunities, D Mohan, et al, The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, 2009.
The present report was designed to analyze the traffic safety situation in India, and to identify countermeasures for areas in which the total harm caused by crashes can be substantially and readily reduced.
Street Network Types and Road Safety: A Study of 24 California Cities, W Marshall, N Garrick, Urban Design International, 2009.
Data on more than 130,000 crashes occurring over nine years in 24 medium-sized California cities was input into a geographic information system (GIS) and evaluated against principal measures of street network density and connectivity at the Census Block Group level. ...results indicate that the highest risk of fatal or severe crashes occurs with very low street network density and safety outcomes improve as the intersection density increases.
Streetscape Guidance 2009: A guide to Better London Streets, Transport for London, 2009.
From Introduction: To ensure that the design of our streets receives a consistently high level of care and attention, Transport for London (TfL) has written Streetscape Guidance. The vision contained in the Guidance is for the streetscape to provide a quiet backdrop to our city and to enhance its character and activities, rather than overpower or dominate them. The Guidance has been developed for the Transport for London Road Network (TLRN), however the principles can be applied to any roads in the Capital.
An approach to understanding Islamic urban design, John Lockerbie, http://catnaps.org/islamic/islaurb1.html. ~2010.
Hidden Health Costs of Transportation, Urban Design 4 Health, Inc., American Public Health Association, 2010.
From Introduction: This report outlines how the connection between health and the built environment impacts the pocketbook; it also provides a summary of the process of planning, funding and building transportation systems, and discusses key opportunities for public health professionals to get involved in the process.
Travel and the Built Environment: A Meta-Analysis, R Ewing & R Cervero, Journal of the American Planning Association, 2010.
From Purpose: We conducted a meta-analysis of the built environment-travel literature existing at the end of 2009 in order to draw generalizable conclusions for practice. We aimed to quantify effect sizes, update earlier work, include additional outcome measures, and address the methodological issue of self-selection.
Fighting Traffic: The Dawn of the Motor Age in the American City, P Norton, MIT Press, 2011.
A must read to understand jaywalking.
Fundamental Law of Road Congestion: Evidence from US Cities, D Gilles & M Turner, American Economic Review, 2011.
From the abstract: We investigate the effect of lane kilometers of roads on vehicle-kilometers traveled (VKT) in US cities. VKT increases proportionately to roadway lane kilometers for interstate highways and probably slightly less rapidly for other types of roads. The sources for this extra VKT are increases in driving by current residents, increases in commercial traffic, and migration. Increasing lane kilometers for one type of road diverts little traffic from other types of road. We find no evidence that the provision of public transportation affects VKT. We conclude that increased provision of roads or public transit is unlikely to relieve congestion.
Urban Design Since 1945: A Global Perspective, D G Shane, Wiley, 2011. The best book I have read on recent urban design.
Cycle Space: Architecture and Urban Design in the Age of the Bicycle, S Fleming, nai100 Publishers, 2012.
Excellent discussion of how to design buildings and cities for the scale of the bicycle (as opposed to foot or car).
Low-Stress Bicycling and Network Connectivity, M Mekuria, P Furth, H Nixon, 2012.
Made for Walking: Density and Neighborhood Form, J Campoli, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 2012.
Rethinking A Lot: The Design and Culture of Parking, E Ben-Joseph, MIT Press, 2012.
Walkable City: How Downtown can Save America, One Step at a Time, J Speck, Farrar, 2012.
30-second Architecture, E Denison, ed., Prospero Books, 2013.
Good example of how to present disparate ideas in a readable fashion. Design is not linear, nor should design guides be.
Completing Our Streets: The Transition to Safe and Inclusive Transportation Networks, B McCann, Island Press, 2013.
Happy City: Transforming Our Lives Through Urban Design, C Montgomery, Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2013.
How the design of American cities has contributed negatively to quality of life.
How to Study Public Life, J Gehl, B Svarre, Island Press, 2013.
Measuring Urban Design, R Ewing & O Clemente, Island Press, 2013.
Streets as Public Spaces and Drivers of Urban Prosperity, G Mboup, UN-Habitat, 2013.
Street Design: The Secret to Great Cities and Towns, J Massengale and V Dover, Wiley, 2014.
Cities Safer by Design: Guidance and Examples to Promote Traffic Safety through Urban and Street Design, B Welle, et al, World Resources Institute, 2015.
From executive summary: Cities Safer by Design provides an overview of how cities around the world can design communities and streets in a way that maximizes safety and health while promoting a more sustainable form of urban development. The guide can be used by designers, private and public developers, engineers, public health experts, city planners, policy makers, and others working to create plans and implement projects that include street and community design.
Increasing Highway Capacity Unlikely to Relieve Traffic Congestion, S Handy, 2015.
The Pedestrian and the City, C Has-Klau, Routledge, 2015.
From the introduction: …provides an overview of an insight into the development and politics of, and polices on, walking and pedestrians: it covers the evolution of pedestrian-friendly housing estates and the attempts to create independent pedestrian footpaths from the nineteenth century up to the present day.
Tactical Urbanism: Short-term Action for Long-term Change, M Lydon and A Garcia, Island Press, 2015.
Streetfight: Handbook for an Urban Revolution, J Sadik-Khan & S Solomonow, Viking Press, 2016.
From Goodreads: An empowering road map for rethinking, reinvigorating, and redesigning our cities, from a pioneer in the movement for safer, more livable streets.